Thailand is a tropical country that is ecologically diverse and consequently supports a rich biodiversity. Due to its geographical position in the tropics and climatic variations between north and south, Thailand is a country of high biological diversity, which is reflected in the number of species reported, especially fungi. The number of fungi recorded for Thailand increased from 700 species in 1989 to 2,000 species in the next decade (2.5% of species described worldwide). At present, a database compiled by BIOTEC lists at least 2,255 fungi and indicated that the total number of total fungi in Thailand may be higher 6,000 species.

In 1993, BIOTEC established the Mycology Research Program to study the biodiversity of invertebrate pathogenic fungi, and broadened to other groups of fungi in last 20 years such as alkaline tolerant fungi, dung fungi, freshwater fungi, lichen fungi, litter Basidiomycetes, marine fungi, palm fungi and seed fungi.

In 2013, Fungal Biodiversity Laboratory is separated from Mycology Laboratory. The overall aims are to gain the basic knowledge based on biodiversity, taxonomic and ecological information of various fungal groups from
natural and agricultural habitats, such as aquatic fungi, marine-mangrove fungi, fungal-like protist, endophytic fungi, penicilli and aspergilli. The data obtained will be greatly available for further applications including natural product research, the production of plant growth promoters and high value fatty acids for the industrial application.